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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and also have been found in Australia in tiny numbers. Recently they've become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and areas of the world, over the last ten years. .
The main reason behind the increase is thought to be caused by insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world traveling with bed bugs being dispersed in bags, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at large turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs could then be transported and brought back to the houses of guests in their luggage.
Many hostels worldwide have now banned the use of travellers own sleeping linen in common accommodation as a security precaution against this insect.
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In ancient infestations, bed bugs are usually found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. Afterwards, as the infestation spreads, the bugs proceed to any tiny crevices, which might be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their colour, adult bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but rather difficult to view on brown wooden floors and other dark surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident by black or brown stains of blood excrement or spotting. There may also be an offensive candy tacky odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour described as buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin shells may also be found near these places, as well as living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This method of communication and the launch of alarm pheromones can make them quite difficult to deal with as bed bugs become awake and fast vacate the region being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can also spread into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will nourish and therefore are likely to harbor in close proximity to the victim. In this case, new locations can easily become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different individuals have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of factors. Some people have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the sting site can become red and intensely itchy. This can happen during the course of the night or may take up to 9-14 days to develop.
The red wheals may range from 2 cm to 5 cm in width with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock may occur in individuals that are contagious, but this is quite rare. .
Discomfort and reduction of sleep is common in the effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on a variety of places on the entire body. Another feature is the bites are in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. These rows are caused by the bed bug being upset during feeding and having to pierce the skin to nourish again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but may feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Even though they may carry diseases like hepatitis they are not known to transfer such diseases to other individuals.
The survival of mattress bug eggs is also an issue. It's not uncommon for the reside bed bugs amongst an infestation to be completely eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period of up to fourteen days and may be deposited in hidden areas that are difficult to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are created more problematic because of the now smaller size of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is discovered, all adjoining rooms need to be inspected and treated if additionally influenced.
This can be completed by the use of adhesive tape (if insect numbers are extremely small) to trap the insect. Vacuuming can also be recommended before substance treatment as it removes all dust and debris from the website of the infestation making it easier linked here for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.